The year 2022 has come to an end and the New Year has begun. Like other parts of Myanmar, Arakan State faced bloodshed and crises over the past year.

The fighting flared, according to local residents, because junta troops and border guard police attempted to encroach on AA-controlled areas on the pretext of border patrols to monitor the movement of the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA).

The Myanmar military, government and NCA signatories held the first session of the Union Peace Conference in August 2016 under the peace framework outlined by the NCA. In addition to the leaders of NCA signatories, representatives from some non-signatory EAOs addressed the conference. No official agreement was reached at the end of the conference, however.

The ALD held its first conference in October 1989 in Sittwe, during which a 15-member central executive committee was elected. The committee included U Oo Than Tun as patron, Dr. Saw Mya Aung as chairman, Dr. U Aye and U San Tun as vice chairs, U Aye Pe as general secretary, and U Aye Tha Aung as the joint general secretary.

The UWSA has continuously demanded an autonomous state. Rather than federalism and democracy, the UWSA is more interested in acquiring the official status of statehood. The Wa ethnic armed group has described the post-coup crisis as an internal issue of the Bamar ethnic people, and said it would not take sides as it does not want to see its involvement causing further conflict.

There are four reasons, or “traps,” why a country suffers from poverty, according to a book written by Paul Collier that was translated by writer Juu under the name “A Billion Bottoms.”  

For example, jade and gold are mined in Kachin State. Arakan State produces oil and gas. However, local people in these states are suffering from poverty and see very little of the benefits that their natural resource endowments should offer them.  

There have been a series of reports that top leaders of powerful political parties in Arakan State resigned following the February 1 military coup in Myanmar. Post-putsch, the stance of the Arakan National Party (ANP), which had established itself as the state’s leading ethnic political party, became a hot topic within the ANP and among the people, with some party members resigning in the weeks and months following the coup. 

Everyone now accepts that this is the age of knowledge. International education processes are evolving so fast that even in developed countries, education reforms are ongoing. The current education system is considered to be unable to adequately meet the demands of the knowledge age. 

Singapore, with a population of about 5 million, and Israel, with a population of just over 9 million, have now reached a high level of productivity as the two countries worked hard to develop skilled labour and human resources. Smaller but more populous countries are being used as commodities to become big markets. Under the leadership of wise leaders, these small nations have successfully turned a geopolitical weakness of small populations into strengths and overcome them.